Dec 10, 2012 · The first mention of male and female circumcision appears in writings by a Greek geographer who visited Egypt around 25 B.C. By Rossella Lorenzi. Published on 12/10/2012 at …Estimated Reading Time: 6 mins
Jul 01, 2012 · The History Of Female Circumcision (FGM) Posted on July 1, 2012 by chocolatnegro. In the late 1990’s the Project LAG in Nara started a sensibilisation programme to fight against the practice of female circumcision in the villages of our intervention zone (commonly called FGM Female Genital Mutilation in the Western world).Estimated Reading Time: 9 mins
Approach to a Patient with a History of Female Circumcision Obtaining a History When an immigrant or refugee settles in a new country, a general practitioner is often the first medical provider they see. Nonetheless, many obstacles can impede a physician’s ability to identify a woman or child’s history of female circumcision.File Size: 430KB
Female circumcision - a procedure where the parts of the female genitals are removed, which is also known as female genital cutting (FGC) or female genital mutilation (FGM) - continues to be practiced in more than 28 African countries. It is estimated that 80-100 million women have been circumcised. We performed a review of the literature to examine the history of female circumcision, its medical and …Cited by: 11
Victorian-era doctors in the English-speaking world began promoting circumcision as a “cure” for masturbation, which was thought to be terribly unhealthy.  In smaller numbers, women were also subjected to the removal of their clitorises to inhibit their libido and to “cure hysteria.” 
Who? “Female infants, children, adolescents and adults” are affected by female genital mutilation, these traditions are primarily “performed between the ages …
Circumcision has ancient roots among several ethnic groups in sub-equatorial Africa, and is still performed on adolescent boys to symbolize their transition to warrior status or adulthood. It is still practiced in the traditional way by a proportion of the population. In Judaism , circumcision has traditionally been practised on males on the eighth day after birth after the First Temple era. Circumcision was common, although not universal, among ancient Semitic people. In the aftermath of the conquests of Alexander the Great , however, Greek dislike of circumcision they regarded a man as truly "naked" only if his prepuce was retracted led to a decline in its incidence among many peoples that had previously practiced it. First Maccabees also relates that the Seleucids forbade the practice of brit milah Jewish circumcision , and punished those who performed it, as well as the infants who underwent it, with death. According to "National Hospital Discharge Survey" in United States, as of , the rate of circumcision of infant boys in hospitals in United States was The origin of circumcision is not known with certainty. It has been variously proposed that it began. Removing the foreskin can prevent or treat a medical condition known as phimosis. It has been suggested that the custom of circumcision gave advantages to tribes that practiced it and thus led to its spread. Darby describes these theories as "conflicting", and states that "the only point of agreement among proponents of the various theories is that promoting good health had nothing to do with it. Thus, men who display this signal of sexual obedience may gain social benefits if married men are selected to offer social trust and investment preferentially to peers who are less threatening to their paternity. Youth are symbolically castrated, or feminized, but also blessed with masculine fruitfulness. African cultural history is conveniently spoken of in terms of language group. In the historic period, the Niger—Congo speaking peoples predominantly have and have had circumcision that occurred in young warrior initiation schools, the schools of Senegal and Gambia being not so very different from those of the Kenyan Gikuyu and South African Zulu. Their common ancestor was a horticultural group five, perhaps seven, thousand years ago from an area of the Cross River in modern Nigeria. From that area a horticultural frontier moved outward into West Africa and the Congo Basin. Certainly the warrior schools with circumcision were a part of the ancestral society's cultural repertoire. Circumcision in East Africa is a rite of passage from childhood to adulthood, but is only practiced in some nations tribes. Amongst the Gikuyu Kikuyu people of Kenya, the Masaba,  and Gisu  people of Uganda, Maasai people in Kenya and Tanzania , circumcision has historically been the graduation element of an educational program that taught tribal beliefs, practices, culture, religion and history to youth who were on the verge of becoming full-fledged members of society. The circumcision ceremony was very public, and required a display of courage under the knife in order to maintain the honor and prestige of the young man and his family. The only form of anesthesia was a bath in the cold morning waters of a river, which tended to numb the senses to a minor degree. The youths being circumcised were required to maintain a stoic expression and not to flinch from the pain. After circumcision, young men became members of the warrior class, and were free to date and marry. The graduants became a fraternity that served together, and continued to have mutual obligation to each other for life. In the modern context in East Africa, the physical element of circumcision remains in the societies that have historically practiced it but without most of the other accompanying rites, context and programs. For many, the operation is now performed in private on one individual, in a hospital or doctor's office. Anesthesia is often used in such settings. There are tribes however, that do not accept this modernized practice. They insist on circumcision in a group ceremony, and a test of courage at the banks of a river. This more traditional approach is common amongst the Meru and the Kisii tribes of Kenya. Despite the loss of the rites and ceremonies that accompanied circumcision in the past, the physical operation remains crucial to personal identity and pride, and acceptance in society. Uncircumcised men in these communities risk being "outed", and subjected to ridicule as "boys". There have been many cases of forced circumcision of men from such communities who are discovered to have escaped the ritual. In some South African ethnic groups, circumcision has roots in several belief systems, and is performed most of the time on teenage boys:. The young men in the eastern Cape belong to the Xhosa ethnic group for whom circumcision is considered part of the passage into manhood. A law was recently introduced requiring initiation schools to be licensed and only allowing circumcisions to be performed on youths aged 18 and older. Each year thousands of young men go into the bush alone, without water, to attend initiation schools. Many do not survive the ordeal. Sixth Dynasty — BCE tomb artwork in Egypt has been thought to be the oldest documentary evidence of circumcision, the most ancient depiction being a bas-relief from the necropolis at Saqqara c. Herodotus , writing in the 5th century BCE, wrote that the Egyptians "practise circumcision for the sake of cleanliness, considering it better to be cleanly than comely. He mentions that the alteration of the body and ritual of circumcision were supposed to give access to ancient mysteries reserved solely for the initiated. See also Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis 1. The Egyptian Book of the Dead , for example, tells of the sun god Ra cutting himself, the blood creating two minor guardian deities. It is thought to have been more popular among the upper echelons of the society, although it was not universal and those lower down the social order are known to have had the procedure done. Circumcision was also adopted by some Semitic peoples living in or around Egypt. Herodotus reported that circumcision is only practiced by the Egyptians, Colchians , Ethiopians , Phoenicians , the 'Syrians of Palestine', and "the Syrians who dwell about the rivers Thermodon and Parthenius, as well as their neighbours the Macronians and Macrones". He also reports, however, that "the Phoenicians, when they come to have commerce with the Greeks, cease to follow the Egyptians in this custom, and allow their children to remain uncircumcised. According to Genesis , God told Abraham to circumcise himself, his household and his slaves as an everlasting covenant in their flesh, see also Abrahamic Covenant. Those who were not circumcised were to be "cut off" from their people. Moses's wife Zipporah circumcised their son when God threatened to kill Moses. According to Hodges, ancient Greek aesthetics of the human form considered circumcision a mutilation of a previously perfectly shaped organ.
The tradition of circumcision is said to have been practiced within the British Royal Family , with varying accounts regarding which monarch started it: either Queen Victoria on account of her rumored adherence to British Israelism and the notion she was a descendant of King David or on the advice of her personal physician , or her grandfather King George. Depending on the symptoms and diagnosis, physicians performed four different procedures of varying invasiveness on women. BBC News. Carey; Teklemariam, Mamae 19 January Other writers later explained that the procedure was carried for less ritualistic reasons. Treatment without consent: law, psychiatry and the treatment of mentally disordered people since Pregnancy Unintended pregnancy Gravidity and parity Obstetrics Antenatal care Adolescent pregnancy Complications of pregnancy Hyperemesis gravidarum Ectopic pregnancy Miscarriage Obstetrical bleeding Gestational diabetes Hypertension Preeclampsia Eclampsia. ISSN X. The conference listed FGM as a form of violence against women , marking it as a human-rights violation, rather than a medical issue. FGM is mostly found in what Gerry Mackie called an "intriguingly contiguous" zone in Africa—east to west from Somalia to Senegal, and north to south from Egypt to Tanzania. But despite throwing the insult back, the Zabarma girls would ask their mothers, "What's the matter? September BMC Public Health. In Bertacco, Simon ed. Khazan, Olga 8 April Beginning in the s United States. Retrieved 17 December PMID History and Anthropology. Retrieved 21 July New York: Vintage Books. The practice's origins are unknown. History of circumcision. Both men were acquitted in Infibulation was banned there in , but the law was unpopular and barely enforced. The author of the entry rejected sanitary explanations of the procedure in favour of a religious one: "like other body mutilations The lower limbs are then bound together for 2—6 weeks to promote haemostatis and encourage union of the two sides. Despite the loss of the rites and ceremonies that accompanied circumcision in the past, the physical operation remains crucial to personal identity and pride, and acceptance in society. ISSN It describes the narrowing of the vaginal opening through creation of a seal, by cutting and repositioning the labia minora or labia majora. How did circumcision become common in the United States? Flavius Josephus in Jewish Antiquities book 20, chapter 2 records the story of King Izates who having been persuaded by a Jewish merchant named Ananias to embrace the Jewish religion, decided to get circumcised so as to follow Jewish law. June It is still practiced in the traditional way by a proportion of the population. Mandara, Mairo Usman March If we look at the data across Africa, the support for the practice is stronger among women than among men. The Egyptian Book of the Dead , for example, tells of the sun god Ra cutting himself, the blood creating two minor guardian deities. Typically carried out by a traditional circumciser using a blade, FGM is conducted from days after birth to puberty and beyond. Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives. No proper Kikuyu man or woman would marry or have sexual relations with someone who was not circumcised, he wrote. In this last procedure, known as infibulation , a small hole is left for the passage of urine and menstrual fluid ; the vagina is opened for intercourse and opened further for childbirth. Women's health. Yes, it was her, I could not be mistaken, in flesh and blood, right in the midst of these strangers, talking to them and smiling at them, as though they had not participated in slaughtering her daughter just a few moments ago. Journal of Medical Ethics. Genitally-mutilated females have been found among Egyptia mummies. Egan, Timothy 4 March English explorer Sir Richard Burton observed that "Christendom practically holds circumcision in horror". Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. My own personal stories, lessons and adventures that I have collected in many hand written diaries for seven years can be found here as well.
Removing the foreskin began at various places and times as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. In ancient Egypt, captured warriors were often marked by circumcision before enslaving them. The practice also extended to their male descendants. Jews adopted circumcision from the Egyptians and are believed to be the first to perform it upon newborns. Midth century England, United States. Its continuing popularity can be attributed in large part to the U. By the s, circumcision was peaking in popularity in the U. Outside the United States medicalized circumcision is rare. Approximately 75 percent of the men in the world enjoy their natural, intact genitals. More and more parents — around 50 percent these days  — are choosing to keep their baby sons intact. Gradually, having a foreskin is becoming normal among American boys. Because circumcision is almost never medically necessary, letting your son make the decision is a healthy, respectful option. How did circumcision begin? Circumcision began in prehistoric times and still survives in some cultures. Its justifications have varied across time and place. Pre-historically, circumcision was a ritual — a rite of passage to adulthood. Cutting off a portion of the genitals was part of a tradition of sacrificing what is most precious in order to receive divine benefits of health and prosperity. After that, it was used to create social identity or hierarchy, and — later — to signify religious identity. How did circumcision become common in the United States? Some Victorian doctors went beyond the masturbation argument — claiming that circumcision prevented or cured conditions ranging from syphilis to epilepsy to mental retardation. As organized medicine evolved, circumcision was adopted by English-speaking countries in the 19th century. However, in the United States it survives as a custom passed down from generation to generation. A brief history of circumcision. Pre-Historic Sacrificial Rites Removing the foreskin began at various places and times as a rite of passage from boyhood to manhood. After 10, BC Middle East. Tribal Hierarchy In ancient Egypt, captured warriors were often marked by circumcision before enslaving them. Before AD Middle East. Religious Identity Jews adopted circumcision from the Egyptians and are believed to be the first to perform it upon newborns. Circa Mediterranean. Early 20th century United States. Midth century United States. American Custom By the s, circumcision was peaking in popularity in the U. Beginning in the s United States. Decreasing Trend More and more parents — around 50 percent these days  — are choosing to keep their baby sons intact. What about religious circumcision? Most people are surprised to learn that religious circumcisions are rare in the United States. Fewer than one percent of newborn circumcisions are carried out in the United States as a religious ritual. The United States is unique among developed countries in its widespread practice of secular non-religious circumcision. Freedom of religion, guaranteed in the U. Constitution, means that all persons have the right to form their own religious beliefs, and to embrace or reject the beliefs of their parents. Permanently marking or altering the body of a newborn boy in the name of religion denies him that right. How do newborn circumcision rates vary across the U. Rates of newborn circumcision vary greatly by state. The frequency of newborn circumcision varies considerably by region in the United States. There is no evidence that boys in states with low circumcision rates are any less healthy than boys in states where circumcision is common. Why is the rest of the world so different? While around half of newborn boys are still being circumcised in the United States, circumcision is virtually unknown in the rest of the world, except among Muslims and Jews. In fact, 17 out of 20 newborn male circumcisions worldwide take place in the United States.