Jimmy Carter's tenure as the 39th president of the United States began with his inauguration on January 20, 1977, and ended on January 20, 1981. Carter, a Democrat from Georgia, took office after defeating incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford in the 1976 presidential election.His presidency ended following his defeat in the 1980 presidential election by Republican Ronald Reagan.
Nov 04, 1979 · Jimmy Carter’s Post-Presidency Career . With his wife Rosalynn, Carter established the nonprofit, nonpartisan Carter Center in Atlanta in 1982. In the decades that followed, he continued his ...
Northeastern University Press. He was reelected in Carter took office just thirty months after a President had left the entire federal government in a shambles. Keeping faith: Memoirs of a president U of Arkansas Press, Busch, Andrew E. Early in his term, Carter worked to fulfill a campaign promise to teachers' unions to create a cabinet-level Department of Education. Retrieved September 7, Carter initially defended Lance, but was later driven to ask for his resignation. One of Carter's first acts was to order the withdrawal of troops from South Korea, which had hosted a large number of U. In early , Secretary Califano presented Carter with several options for welfare reform, all of which Carter rejected because they increased government spending. Roosevelt — Harry S. Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Carter also cut back or terminated military aid to Augusto Pinochet of Chile , Ernesto Geisel of Brazil, and Jorge Rafael Videla of Argentina, all of whom he criticized for human rights violations. Carter took office during a period of " stagflation ", as the economy experienced both high inflation and low economic growth. Retrieved November 21, The Presidency of James Earl Carter 2nd ed. A highly controversial issue was independence of Namibia from Union of South Africa. Many of Carter's original proposals were not included in the legislation, but the act deregulated natural gas and encouraged energy conservation and the development of renewable energy through tax credits. Evangelical Protestants became an increasingly important voting bloc, and they generally supported Reagan in the campaign. Archived from the original on December 20, The limited spending involved in the package reflected Carter's fiscal conservatism, as he was more concerned with avoiding inflation and balancing the budget than addressing unemployment. Committee on the Judiciary. He faced epic challenges—the energy crisis, Soviet aggression, Iran, and above all, a deep mistrust of leadership by his citizens. Grant — Rutherford B. OMB Director Bert Lance resigned his position on September 21, , amid allegations of improper banking activities prior to his becoming director. Carter's resistance to higher federal spending drew attacks from many members of his own party, who wanted to lower the unemployment rate through federal public works projects. Jimmy Carter American Moralist 1 ed. I want to talk to you right now about a fundamental threat to American democracy Culberson — Money — Martin — Kern — Martin — Hitchcock — Underwood — Robinson — Barkley — Lucas — McFarland — Johnson — Mansfield — Byrd — Mitchell — Daschle — Reid — Schumer —present. In November , a mob of Iranian students stormed the U. Bush: Faith, foreign policy, and an evangelical presidential style. It was Carter's fate to attempt to navigate the nation between the rock of traditional Democratic constituencies and the hard place of an emerging conservative movement whose emphasis was more on social and cultural values than on the economic concerns of the Democratic Party. Though Carter had campaigned against Washington insiders, many of his top appointees had served in previous presidential administrations. Young began United Nations discussions which went nowhere, and Namibia would not gain independence until long after Carter left office. After a strong backlash, Carter delayed the withdrawal, and ultimately only a fraction of the U. He is the oldest living U. Marijuana: A Short History. Washington T. Anchor Books. Most important, he was a president who never adequately defined a mission for his government, a purpose for the country, and a way to get there. The Shah went into exile, leaving a caretaker government in control. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file. Rosalynn Carter was an American first lady and the wife of Jimmy Carter, the 39th president of the United States. Governing America online Carter, Jimmy. Main article: Foreign policy of the Jimmy Carter administration. Patterson, James
Jimmy Carter 's tenure as the 39th president of the United States began with his inauguration on January 20, , and ended on January 20, Carter, a Democrat from Georgia, took office after defeating incumbent Republican President Gerald Ford in the presidential election. His presidency ended following his defeat in the presidential election by Republican Ronald Reagan. Carter took office during a period of " stagflation ," as the economy experienced a combination of high inflation and slow economic growth. His budgetary policies centered on taming inflation by reducing deficits and government spending. Responding to energy concerns that had persisted through much of the s, his administration enacted a national energy policy designed to promote energy conservation and the development of alternative resources. Despite Carter's policies, the country was beset by an energy crisis in , which was followed by a recession in Carter sought reforms to the country's welfare, health care, and tax systems, but was largely unsuccessful, partly due to poor relations with Congress. Taking office in the midst of the Cold War , Carter reoriented U. He continued the conciliatory Cold War policies of his predecessors, normalizing relations with China and pursuing further Strategic Arms Limitation Talks with the Soviet Union. After the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan , he discarded his conciliatory policies towards the Soviet Union and began a period of military build-up and diplomatic pressure such as pulling out of the Moscow Olympics. The final fifteen months of Carter's presidential tenure were marked by several additional major crises, including the Iran hostage crisis and economic malaise. Ted Kennedy , a prominent liberal Democrat who protested Carter's opposition to a national health insurance system, challenged Carter in the Democratic primaries. Boosted by public support for his policies in late and early , Carter rallied to defeat Kennedy and win re-nomination. In the general election, Carter faced Reagan, a conservative former governor of California. Reagan won a decisive victory. In polls of historians and political scientists , Carter is usually ranked as a below-average president, but is seen more positively through his post-presidency humanitarian activities across the globe. Carter was elected as the Governor of Georgia in , and during his four years in office he earned a reputation as a progressive , racially moderate Southern governor. Observing George McGovern 's success in the Democratic primaries , Carter came to believe that he could win the Democratic presidential nomination by running as an outsider unconnected to establishment politicians in Washington, D. Harris , Terry Sanford , Henry M. Jackson , Lloyd Bentsen , and George Wallace all sought the nomination, and many of these candidates were better known than Carter. Carter sought to appeal to various groups in the party; his advocacy for cutting defense spending and reining in the CIA appealed to liberals, while his emphasis on eliminating government waste appealed to conservatives. The selection of Mondale was well received by many liberal Democrats, many of whom had been skeptical of Carter. The Republicans experienced a contested convention that ultimately nominated incumbent President Gerald Ford , who had succeeded to the presidency in after the resignation of Richard Nixon due to the latter's involvement in the Watergate scandal. Above all, Carter attacked the political system, defining himself as an "outsider" who would reform Washington in the post-Watergate era. Polls taken just before election day showed a very close race. Carter won the election with The presidential election represents the lone Democratic presidential election victory between the elections of and Carter fared particularly well in the Northeast and the South, while Ford swept the West and won much of the Midwest. In the concurrent congressional elections , Democrats increased their majorities in both the House and Senate. Preliminary planning for Carter's presidential transition had already been underway for months before his election. In his inaugural address, Carter said, "We have learned that more is not necessarily better, that even our great nation has its recognized limits, and that we can neither answer all questions nor solve all problems. His first steps in the White House went further in this direction: Carter cut the size of the member White House staff by one-third and reduced the perks for the president and cabinet members. Though Carter had campaigned against Washington insiders, many of his top appointees had served in previous presidential administrations. Michael Blumenthal had been high-ranking officials in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations. Schlesinger as a presidential assistant on energy issues, federal judge Griffin Bell as Attorney General, and Patricia Roberts Harris , the first African-American woman to serve in the cabinet,  as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Carter appointed several close associates from Georgia to staff the Executive Office of the President. Carter decided not to have a chief of staff, instead implementing a system in which cabinet members would have more direct access to the president. Eizenstat as head of the Domestic Policy Staff. Brzezinski emerged as one of Carter's closest advisers, and Carter made use of both the National Security Council and Vance's State Department in developing and implementing foreign policy. Vice President Mondale served as a key adviser on both foreign and domestic issues. She traveled abroad to negotiate foreign policy, and some polling found that she was tied with Mother Teresa as the most admired woman in the world. Jordan was selected as the president's first chief of staff, while Alonzo L. Federal Reserve Chairman G. Among presidents who served at least one full term, Carter is the only one who never made an appointment to the Supreme Court. Carter was the first president to make demographic diversity a key priority in the selection of judicial nominees. Instead he traced his ideological background to the Progressive Era. He was thus much more conservative than the dominant liberal wing of the party could accept. Carter successfully campaigned as a Washington "outsider" critical of both President Gerald Ford and the Democratic Congress; as president, he continued this theme. This refusal to play by the rules of Washington contributed to the Carter administration's difficult relationship with Congress. After the election, the President demanded the power to reorganize the executive branch, alienating powerful Democrats like Speaker Tip O'Neill and Jack Brooks. During the Nixon administration , Congress had passed a series of reforms that removed power from the president, and most members of Congress were unwilling to restore that power even with a Democrat now in office. A few months after his term started, Carter issued a "hit list" of 19 projects that he claimed were " pork barrel " spending. He said that he would veto any legislation that contained projects on this list.
The Last Year of the Carter Presidency online. Carter took office during the Cold War , a sustained period of geopolitical tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. Edward M. The other 77 percent believed that this was brought on by oil companies just to make a profit. She traveled abroad to negotiate foreign policy, and some polling found that she was tied with Mother Teresa as the most admired woman in the world. Ever since oil was discovered in Iran in the first decade of the 20th century, the country had attracted great interest from the West. The limited spending involved in the package reflected Carter's fiscal conservatism, as he was more concerned with avoiding inflation and balancing the budget than addressing unemployment. Departing from the monarchical tradition of Britain, the founding fathers of the United States created a system in which the American people had the power and responsibility to select their leader. His chief goals were to limit the growth of energy demand to an increase of two percent a year, cut oil imports in half, and establish a new strategic petroleum reserve containing a six-month supply. Views Read Edit View history. That same year, rioting broke out in several cities, and it soon spread across the country. Upon taking office, Carter asked James Schlesinger to develop a plan to address the energy crisis. Retrieved September 7, Change and Continuity in the Elections Davis Denver : W. As the 39th president of the United States, Jimmy Carter struggled to respond to formidable challenges, including a major energy crisis as well as high inflation and unemployment. In late April and early May the Gallup poll found only 14 percent of the public believed that America was in an actual energy shortage. Patterson, James September 6, Schlesinger presented an energy plan that contained provisions, the most important of which were taxes on domestic oil production and gasoline consumption. Ambassador to the United Nations. Boulder, Colo. Random House Digital, Inc. The Carter administration continued the Nixon and Ford administration's policy of supporting the " New Order " in Indonesia under Suharto. Carter hoped to improve relations with Cuba upon taking office, but any thaw in relations was prevented by ongoing Cold War disputes in Central America and Africa. Paris, Normandy , Bayeux , Versailles. See also: Sino-American relations. I do not refer to the outward strength of America, a nation that is at peace tonight everywhere in the world, with unmatched economic power and military might. Authority control: National libraries United States. He was thus much more conservative than the dominant liberal wing of the party could accept. Carter chose to sign the bill, but his criticism of the alleged "pork barrel" projects cost him support in Congress. Carter sought to appeal to various groups in the party; his advocacy for cutting defense spending and reining in the CIA appealed to liberals, while his emphasis on eliminating government waste appealed to conservatives. Carter's abrogation of the treaty was challenged in court by conservative Republicans, but the Supreme Court ruled that the issue was a non-justiciable political question in Goldwater v. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Though Carter had campaigned against Washington insiders, many of his top appointees had served in previous presidential administrations. The Housing and Community Development Act of set up Urban Development Action Grants, extended handicapped and elderly provisions, and established the Community Reinvestment Act ,  which sought to prevent banks from denying credit and loans to poor communities. Foreign Relations Since Bush, who referred to Reagan's tax cut proposal as "voodoo economics", won the Iowa Caucus but faded later in the race. In November , a mob of Iranian students stormed the U. Cornell University Press, Aldrich, and David W. Carter sought reforms to the country's welfare, health care, and tax systems, but was largely unsuccessful, partly due to poor relations with Congress. Bush pp He delayed consideration of health care through , and ultimately decided that he would not support Kennedy's proposal to establish an NHI system that covered all Americans. Congress and the Nation V: — in-depth nonpartisan detail on all major issues; pp; contents Dumbrell, John Reagan won the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the Republican National Convention and named Bush as his running mate. Presidential Elections Departing from the monarchical tradition of Britain, the founding fathers of the United States created a system in which the American people had the power and responsibility to select their leader.
As the 39th president of the United States, Jimmy Carter struggled to respond to formidable challenges, including a major energy crisis as well as high inflation and unemployment. In the foreign affairs arena, he reopened U. Over the next decades, Carter built a distinguished career as a diplomat, humanitarian and author, pursuing conflict resolution in countries around the globe. He was awarded the Noble Peace Prize in "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development. Naval Academy at Annapolis, graduating in In , he was preparing to serve as an engineering officer on the submarine Seawolf when his father died. Active in community affairs and a deacon at the Plains Baptist Church, Carter launched his political career with a seat on his local board of education. In , he won election to the Georgia State Senate as a Democrat. He was reelected in The loss sent Carter into a period of depression, which he overcame by finding renewed faith as a born-again Christian. He ran again for the governorship in and won. A year later, Carter was featured on the cover of Time magazine as one of a new breed of young political leaders in the South, known for their moderate racial views and progressive economic and social policies. Carter announced his candidacy for president in , just before his gubernatorial term was up. For the next two years, he traveled around the country making speeches and meeting as many people as possible. At a time when Americans were disillusioned with the executive branch of government in the wake of the Watergate scandal , Carter managed to build a constituency by marketing himself as an outsider to Washington politics. Mondale of Minnesota as his running mate. In the general election, Carter faced Republican incumbent Gerald R. As president, Carter sought to portray himself as a man of the people, dressing informally and adopting a folksy speaking style. He introduced a number of ambitious programs for social and economic reform, and included a relatively large number of women and minorities in his cabinet. This difficult relationship with Congress meant that Carter was unable to convert his plans into legislation, despite his initial popularity. Carter initially defended Lance, but was later driven to ask for his resignation. In , Carter brokered two U. The resulting Camp David Accords ended the state of war between the two nations that had existed since Israel was founded in In July , Carter called a special summit with national leaders at Camp David. In November , a mob of Iranian students stormed the U. Carter stood firm in the tense standoff that followed, but his failure to free the hostages during the Iran hostage crisis led his government to be perceived as inept and inefficient; this perception increased after the failure of a secret U. Despite sagging approval ratings, Carter was able to defeat a challenge by Senator Edward Kennedy to win the Democratic nomination in He was defeated by a large margin in the general election that year by Ronald Reagan , a former actor and governor of California who argued during his campaign that the problem facing the country was not a lack of public confidence, but a need for new leadership. With his wife Rosalynn, Carter established the nonprofit, nonpartisan Carter Center in Atlanta in In the decades that followed, he continued his diplomatic activities in many conflict-ridden countries around the globe. In alone, Carter negotiated with North Korea to end their nuclear weapons program, worked in Haiti to ensure a peaceful transfer of government and brokered a temporary ceasefire between Bosnian Serbs and Muslims. Carter has also built homes for the poor with the organization Habitat for Humanity and worked as a professor at Emory University. He is the author of numerous books, the topics of which range from his views on the Middle East to memories of his childhood; they also include a historical novel and a collection of poetry. In , Carter was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The prize committee cited his role in helping forge the Camp David accord between Israel and Egypt during his presidency, as well as his ongoing work with the Carter Center. In , Carter announced he had been diagnosed with cancer that had metastasized. He is the oldest living U. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Rosalynn Carter was an American first lady and the wife of Jimmy Carter, the 39th president of the United States. Richard Nixon , the 37th U. Nixon stepped down in , halfway through his second term, rather than face impeachment over his efforts to cover up illegal activities by members of his Israel and Egypt did not make good neighbors. Glimmers of hope On November 4, , a group of Iranian students stormed the U. Embassy in Tehran, taking more than 60 American hostages. The s were a tumultuous time. In some ways, the decade was a continuation of the s.